American Hornbeam : References

Apgar, A. C. (1892). Trees of the Northern United States. New York: American Book Company.

American hornbeam. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2014, from

Brown, D. R., Sherry, T. W., & Harris, J. (2011). Hurricane Katrina impacts the breeding bird community in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Pearl River basin, Louisiana. Forest Ecology and Management, 261(1), 111-119. Retrieved October 3, 2014, from Science Direct.

"Carpinus Caroliniana - American Hornbeam." (n.d.). USDA Plant Profiles. Retrieved September 19, 2014 from USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service,

"Carpinus Caroliniana." (n.d.). NPIN: Native Plant Database. Retrieved September 19, 2014 from Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center The University of Texas at Austin.

Carpinus caroliniana - Plant Finder. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2014, from

Carpinus Carolinianav Native American Ethnobotany. (n.d.). Retrieved November 1, 2014 from University of Michigan – Dearborn.

Emerson, G. B. (1846). A report on the trees and shrubs growing naturally in the forests of Massachusetts. Published agreeably to an order of the Legislature, by the Commissioners on the Zoological and botanical survey of the state. Boston: Dutton and Wentworth.

Lockhart, B. R. (2004). Perspective: All Species Have Value. Journal of Forestry, 102(1), 60-61. Retrieved October 3, 2014.

Lockhart, B. R., Guldin, J. M., & Foti, T. (2010). Tree Species Composition and Structure in an Old Bottomland Hardwood Forest in South-Central Arkansas. Castanea, 75(3), 315-329. Retrieved September 27, 2014, from JSTOR.

Medicinal Herbs: American Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2014, from

Metzger, F. T. "American Hornbeam." (n.d.) Retrieved September 19, 2014 from USDA Forest Service.

Metzger, F. T. (1990). Carpinus caroliniana Walt. In R. M. Burns & B. H. Honkala (Authors), Silvics of North America (Vol. 2, Hardwoods). Washington D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture.

Williams, S. C., Denicola, A. J., & Ortega, I. M. (2008). Behavioral responses of white-tailed deer subjected to lethal management. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 86(12), 1358-1366. Retrieved October 3, 2014.